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InterSystems IRIS Glossary of Terms
Complete Glossary of Terms
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The following is a list of terminology relevant to InterSystems IRIS.
Terms Beginning with Symbols and A
$X/$Y action table
System. Internal table that specifies whether a character, on input to or output from a device, modifies $X, $Y, or both. The special variables $X and $Y keep track of the horizontal and vertical coordinates on the device.
$ZF function
ObjectScript. An InterSystems implementation-specific function that lets you invoke external programs or routines from within InterSystems IRIS. On UNIX®, you can use $ZF functions to issue UNIX® shell commands, call UNIX® System Services, or call routines written in high-level languages, such as C.
$ZU function
ObjectScript. A group of system-supplied functions, some of which were formerly made externally accessible. Deprecated; removed from documentation and replaced by classes as of the 2010.2 release.
ASCII character set
System. For InterSystems products, ASCII refers to extended, 8-bit character sets, rather than the more limited, 7-bit character set. By default, an InterSystems IRIS instance uses the character set from the machine’s locale, as specified in the “Supported Languages” chapter of the online InterSystems Supported Platforms document for this release; if there is no support for a machine’s default language, InterSystems IRIS uses the ISO-8859-1 character set, commonly known as Latin-1.
abstract class
Objects. An abstract class cannot be instantiated. It acts as a template for multiple non-abstract subclasses with common characteristics.
abstract persistent class
Objects. An abstract persistent class cannot be instantiated but is projected to InterSystems SQL as a table containing all of the data stored in its subclasses.
access mode
System. A category of the available connection tools, where each access mode has particular characteristics and is for particular situations. There are three different access modes: local (where the user interacts directly with InterSystems IRIS on the server machine); client/server (where the user connects to InterSystems IRIS from a separate executable, usually on a separate machine); and CSP (where the user interacts with InterSystems IRIS through a CSP web-based application).
activate
System. To retrieve a database-encryption key from memory and store its value internally in a running InterSystems IRIS instance so that InterSystems IRIS can mount and manipulate an encrypted database.
added role
System. Any role that becomes associated with a user after that user authenticates to InterSystems IRIS.
ad hoc query
General. A SELECT statement used in embedded SQL or via ODBC or JDBC. Within object applications, ad hoc queries differ from normal queries in that they are not part of a class definition and they cannot be processed using the query interface.
application mode
System. The mode in which InterSystems IRIS initiates a terminal session in a pre-specified namespace and running a pre-specified program. In application mode, the user cannot initiate programs from the InterSystems IRIS prompt, and the terminal session ends when the user shuts down the program. Application mode is designed to allow users to perform a limited set of operations and not to gain access to other, more powerful aspects of the Terminal that are available in programmer mode.
Application Program Interface (API)
General. A set of calls that provide an interface between an application tool or C application and the server and that manage communications with the server.
array
Objects. A collection that uses key-value pairs to access data. Arrays are projected to SQL as child tables.
asset
System. Data or functionality that is protected by InterSystems security. Assets are represented within InterSystems IRIS as resources; each resource represents one or more assets.
atomic lock
Objects. An atomic lock performs no locking for data stored in a single node of the database. It holds a shared lock while data stored in more than one node is being loaded and holds an exclusive lock while the same data is saved.
attribute
Objects. A data element representing a specific characteristic associated with a class. Each object of that class contains a literal value for the attribute. Together, the attributes of a class represent its state. Also known as a property. Strictly speaking, an attribute is any property that is not a relationship.
audit database
System. A database containing a list of some of the events that have occurred while InterSystems IRIS is running. When auditing is enabled, InterSystems IRIS logs various events, depending on the choices of the InterSystems IRIS administrator. Applications can also create and log their own events. The audit database is also known as the audit log.
authentication
System. The process by which users demonstrate that they are who they say they are. In the most commonly recognized case, this occurs by providing a password. However, other authentication schemes are commercially available.
authentication mechanism
System. A means by which a user is authenticated to InterSystems IRIS. Authentication can occur using Kerberos, the use of existing operating system credentials, a native InterSystems IRIS password prompt, LDAP, or delegated (that is, user-defined) code.
authorization
System. The process of determining what an authenticated user can do on an InterSystems IRIS system. Authorization includes several aspects: assigning roles to users (performed by a role-assignment mechanism); managing those roles and what they can do; and managing resources within InterSystems IRIS.
Terms Beginning with B
BLOB
InterSystems SQL. A BLOB, or Binary Large Object, is the relational term for a large chunk of data. InterSystems IRIS uses its stream interface to manipulate BLOBs.
binary stream
Objects. A binary stream provides an interface to manipulate and store large chunks of binary data such as images. Data stored in a binary stream is not translated during Unicode conversions. The InterSystems IRIS stream interface can be used to manipulate binary streams in ObjectScript, SQL, and Java.
bind
InterSystems SQL. To associate a variable in an application program with a host variable using embedded SQL.
breakpoint
ObjectScript. Location in an InterSystems IRIS routine that you specify with the ZBREAK command. When execution reaches that line, InterSystems IRIS suspends execution of the routine and, optionally, executes debugging actions you define.
buffer
General. Defined location of computer memory that holds specific information. Buffers make it easy for multiple processes to access the same data. For instance, InterSystems IRIS caches globals in global buffers, and routines in routine buffers.
Terms Beginning with C
CACHE.DAT
System. The primary volume in an InterSystems IRIS database. It contains InterSystems IRIS globals and routines.
CLASSPATH
Java. A system variable used by Java compilers to search for classes and packages referenced in the classes they compile.
InterSystems IRIS cube
System. The icon that appears on the taskbar when you start InterSystems IRIS on a Windows system. From this icon, you can configure and manage your InterSystems IRIS systems as well as create and manage classes and routines.
InterSystems IRIS database
System. A collection of related data stored in globals and routines within a single directory, namespace, or UIC.
Instance Authentication
System. The native InterSystems authentication system: a user is prompted for a password, a hash of the supplied password is passed to the InterSystems IRIS server, and that hash is compared to the hash of the existing password stored in the server. If the two values are identical, InterSystems IRIS then grants authorization to those resources for which the user has privileges.
This mechanism is listed in the Management Portal as Password authentication.
InterSystems IRIS Object Server for Java
Objects. The InterSystems IRIS Java Binding gives client applications written in Java access to server-based InterSystems IRIS objects.
InterSystems IRIS object utility library
Objects. The InterSystems IRIS Object Utility Library provides an interface to configure the object components of InterSystems IRIS, manipulate and compile classes, and interactively use objects. The primary interface to these utilities is via the %SYSTEM.OBJ class.
ObjectScript
System. One of the programming languages supported by InterSystems IRIS.
InterSystems IRIS relational utility library
InterSystems SQL. The InterSystems IRIS relational utility library provides an interface to configure InterSystems SQL, manage the InterSystems SQL Server, and import DDL from other relational databases. The primary interface to these utilities is via the %SYSTEM.SQL class.
InterSystems SQL server
InterSystems SQL. The InterSystems SQL server handles SQL requests from client applications to apply queries and updates to an InterSystems IRIS database, error logging, and other SQL-related tasks. This is the server process that the ODBC and JDBC drivers connect to.
InterSystems SQL storage
Objects. InterSystems SQL storage provides a mechanism for using SQL to insert, update, and retrieve data via the object persistent interface. Classes use InterSystems SQL Storage if their storage definition specifies the %CacheSQLStorage storage class and includes an SQL mapping section.
InterSystems SQL
InterSystems SQL. An advanced relational interface to InterSystems IRIS. InterSystems SQL is fully integrated with the object functionality of InterSystems IRIS, sharing its Class Dictionary for table definition and using Advanced Data Types defined as classes.
Web Server Pages (CSP)
System. A set of technologies that provide the ability to build web-based applications with InterSystems IRIS.
InterSystems IRIS server
System. Facility that allows you to use a distributed InterSystems IRIS database in a networked system.
InterSystems IRIS storage
Objects. The default storage type for persistent objects. If you use InterSystems IRIS Storage, you do not need to specify any details about how to store your data and your classes are automatically projected to SQL.
Terminal
System. A terminal window that provides an interactive command line interface to InterSystems IRIS.
InterSystems IRIS web service server
System. A private, InterSystems IRIS-specific web server that supports the Management Portal and the InterSystems IRIS online documentation. The private web server does not interfere with any other web server on the same host. The default web server port is 57772; if 57772 is not available, the web server listens the next available number higher than 57772. To set the web server port number, use the WebServerPort field of the Startup Settings page of the Management Portal ([System] > [Configuration] > [Startup Settings]) available through the System Administration >> Configuration >> Additional Settings >>Startup Settings choices.
calculated property
Objects. A property that has no in-memory storage allocated for it when the object containing it is instantiated. Instead, its value is determined each time it is requested.
call method
Objects. A method that directly invokes an InterSystems IRIS routine.
callin interface
System. InterSystems IRIS facility that lets you execute and evaluate ObjectScript commands and expressions from within C programs. You can also use the callin interface from $ZF routines.
callback method
Objects. Callback methods are called by system methods to allow additional user written processing during specific events. To distinguish these types of methods, they are given names of the form %OnEvent, where “Event” describes the event that triggers the callback.
canonical form
General. The canonical form of a name is its complete, standard, and unambiguous form. InterSystems IRIS has canonical forms for various entities, including numbers, global references, command options, files and paths, and devices.
For information on the canonical form of numbers, see the $NUMBER reference page in the ObjectScript Reference.
For information on the canonical form of globals and the related naked global references, see either the section Naked Global References in the chapter “Using Multidimensional Storage (Globals)” in the book Using Globals or the $NAME or $ZREFERENCE reference pages in the ObjectScript Reference.
Information on the canonical form of command options appears on the reference page for the command itself.
The canonical form of files, paths, and devices depends on the operating system.
For example, on Windows, a reference to the file ..\cache.wij is not in canonical form, while C:\InterSystems\Cache\CACHE.WIJ is (if there is an instance of InterSystems IRIS called “Cache” and installed in the standard location).
For UNIX®, an example of the canonical form of a device name is /dev/tty.
cascading dot syntax
Objects. Cascading dot syntax is used to follow the chain of other objects referenced by an object and directly manipulate the properties and methods of these referenced objects. For example:
 Write auto.Engine.Cylinder.SparkPlug.IdNumber
character set
System. A set of values that defines the internal representation of InterSystems IRIS data for an instance.
character stream
Objects. A character stream provides an interface to manipulate and store large chunks of text-based data. Data stored in a character stream is translated during Unicode conversions. The InterSystems IRIS stream interface can be used to manipulate character streams in ObjectScript, SQL, and Java.
child table
InterSystems SQL. A table that is dependent on another table (its parent). Rows in a child table must have a pointer to a row in the parent table.
circular reference
Objects. A set of two properties in different classes where each property is a reference to the other class. InterSystems IRIS fully supports circular references as long as both properties are not required properties. If both properties in a circular reference are required, you will not be able to save objects of either class.
class compiler
Objects. The class compiler compiles InterSystems IRIS classes. You can use the class compiler from the Studio or by using one of the compile calls in the InterSystems IRIS object utility library.
Class Definition Language
Objects. The InterSystems IRIS Class Definition Language, CDL, is a keyword-based language used to define classes in InterSystems IRIS.
class descriptor
Objects. A special type of routine that contains the runtime information (list of methods and properties) needed to use objects.
class dictionary
Objects. The Class Dictionary holds the current class definition of all compiled classes. The Class Dictionary is also used by InterSystems SQL to determine valid table definitions.
class hierarchy
Objects. The class hierarchy shows the chain of classes from each root class through each of its subclasses and their subclasses.
class member
Objects. An element that belongs to a class. Class members can be properties, methods, parameters, queries, indices, triggers, or XData blocks.
class method
Objects. A method that can be invoked whether or not an instance of its class is in memory.
class
Objects. A class encapsulates the state and behavior of a single entity. A class consists of some type information and a set of class members including properties, methods, parameters, queries, and indices.
InterSystems IRIS supports two main kinds of classes: data type classes and object classes. It supports many kinds of object classes including abstract classes, abstract persistent classes, persistent classes, embeddable classes, non-registered classes, registered classes, and system classes.
client data type
Objects. The client data type is used to specify information needed to project data to clients via an InterSystems IRIS Object Server. Every data type class must have a client data type. Attributes based on a data type class project that class’s client data type as the attribute’s data type to SQL and clients such as Java.
client lock
System. See outgoing lock.
client
System. The machine on which your application runs. It is connected to the server machine, on which your database resides. Also, a node on a network that can request information from other nodes.
client application
System. An executable separate from the InterSystems IRIS executable, but which relies on InterSystems IRIS, for example, as a data source. Such an application can be registered with InterSystems IRIS and thereby regulated as part of the InterSystems security model. The user of a client application must be authenticated to InterSystems IRIS using one of the supported authentication mechanisms.
code method
Objects. A method that executes ObjectScript.
collation rule
System. An algorithm that determines the order in which InterSystems IRIS retrieves global nodes. InterSystems IRIS built-in collation rules include UNICODE, ANSI and string. In ANSI collation, canonical numeric subscripts come first in numeric order, followed by all others in string order; string order is the order of characters in the character set. String rule orders all subscripts as strings in the character set, just as the ObjectScript "]" operator does.
collation sequence
System. Specifies the order in which InterSystems IRIS retrieves global nodes, when it must retrieve nodes in order. A character set and a collation rule together make up a collation sequence. Each global is associated with a particular collation sequence.
collation
InterSystems SQL. Collation specifies how InterSystems SQL transforms data before it is sorted. Each data type has a default collation type. Properties based on a data type use its collation type unless a property collation type is explicitly defined. Indices use the collation type of the properties they index unless an index collation type is explicitly specified.
InterSystems SQL supports the following preferred collation types: EXACT, SQLUPPER, and SQLSTRING. SQLUPPER is the default for data types based on %String. EXACT is the default for all other data types. The following legacy collations are also supported: ALPHAUP, MINUS, PLUS, SPACE, STRING, and UPPER.
collection
Objects. A collection is a property containing multiple elements (either literal values or objects). InterSystems IRIS supports two types of collections: lists and arrays.
column
InterSystems SQL. A column contains a specific element of data for each instance stored within a table. Properties are projected to SQL as columns.
communications protocol
General. A set of conventions that define how data is transferred between computers on a network. More specifically, it is the software that determines how a message packet is formatted. Communication protocols are used to talk to a network interface device. More than one communication protocol can share the same physical interface device.
compilation flag
Objects. A compilation flag tells the class compiler how to compile classes. Compilation flags control which classes are compiled, whether source code is deleted from the system, and how InterSystems IRIS handles compiling classes with objects in memory.
compilation
Objects. The process which transforms InterSystems IRIS classes and routines into executable code.
compiler directive
Objects. A compiler directive provides information on the files needed to successfully compile a specific class or routine. Examples of compiler directives include specifying include files and specifying that a class must be compiled after another class has already been compiled.
computed field
Objects. A field whose value is derived from a calculation defined in ObjectScript compiled code. ObjectScript compiled code can reference other fields in the associated base table as well as ObjectScript functions and special variables.
computer name
System. The name assigned to one processor, its peripheral equipment, and all of its associated datasets. This name must be unique across the network. See also System Name.
concurrency mode
Objects. The concurrency mode determines what type of locking is performed when you open and save objects. InterSystems IRIS supports five concurrency modes (0-4) which allow you to specify no locking, atomic locking, shared locking, shared retained locking, and exclusive locking.
concurrency
Objects. Concurrency provides a mechanism for controlling data integrity through locking. InterSystems IRIS supports five concurrency modes ranging from performing no locking to holding an exclusive lock from the time an object is loaded into memory until it is saved. By default, InterSystems IRIS uses atomic locking for all objects.
concurrent backup
System. A backup performed without stopping other database activity. InterSystems IRIS uses a multipass method that minimizes the impact of backup on users while maintaining the integrity of the backup.
Note: Transaction processing that occurs during backup may not be completely journaled if you clear, delete, or replace the current journal file as part of backup.
configuration
System. An InterSystems IRIS configuration describes InterSystems IRIS resources at startup. You define a configuration in the Management Portal. A configuration consists of a system configuration that you define in the System Configuration editor and a namespace/network configuration that you define in the National Language Support editor. You can create more than one configuration, although only one can be current at a time. InterSystems IRIS uses the current configuration at startup.
connection
System. A link between a client application or tool and InterSystems IRIS. Each connection has an associated process on the InterSystems IRIS server.
connection security level
System. Specifies which Kerberos functionality protects a client/server connection. The available levels are: initial authentication only (often simply called “Kerberos”); initial authentication and packet integrity (often called “Kerberos with packet integrity”); and initial authentication, packet integrity, and encryption of all messages (often called “Kerberos with encryption”).
connection tool
System. The means by which users establish their connection with InterSystems IRIS (such as the Terminal, Java, or CSP).
conversion code
Objects. Compiled code used by InterSystems IRIS to convert data values from internal storage formats to external display formats, and from external input formats to internal storage formats.
credentials cache
System. A file containing authentication information for a previously identified user. The credentials cache is used to speed up the authentication process by avoiding duplicated effort. Used most frequently in reference to Kerberos authentication.
CSP application
System. A set of Web Server Pages classes or pages that, together, create a Web-based application. Such an application can be registered with InterSystems IRIS and thereby regulated as part of the InterSystems security model. The user of a CSP application must be authenticated to InterSystems IRIS using one of the supported authentication mechanisms.
current device
System. The device through which I/O commands are processed. When you log on, your current device is your principal device. This is usually the terminal or personal computer at which you logged on.
current directory
General. The directory in which you are currently working.
cursor-based SQL
InterSystems SQL. A type of embedded SQL query that opens a cursor to process the query. When your application needs to access multiple rows of data, you must use a cursor. A cursor acts like a pointer—it focuses on accessing and processing one row at a time, then moves from that row to the next in the sequence.
cursor
InterSystems SQL. A forward-moving iterator within multiple rows of data.
custom storage
Objects. Custom storage allows you to determine the storage structure of objects by writing your own implementation of the storage interface methods. Generally, classes that use custom storage are not projected to SQL.
Terms Beginning with D
DDL import utility
Objects. A utility included in the InterSystems IRIS Relational Utility Library to import DDL files into InterSystems IRIS. The utility automatically adds the corresponding definition to the Class Dictionary.
DMNNET
System. An InterSystems IRIS process that handles incoming global requests from a network. It is the name that appears on the System Status (%SS) display or the Processes panel in System Operations Utilities to represent the network daemon.
DSM
General. InterSystems implementation of the M programming environment originally known as “Digital Standard M.”
DTM NetBIOS
System. A network communication protocol that can be used to link to DTM databases.
DTM
General. The InterSystems implementation of the M programming language designed to run on IBM-compatible PCs based on Intel 80386 and higher microprocessors.
Data Definition Language
InterSystems SQL. Data Definition Language or DDL is a command based language used to create, define the structure of, and delete tables.
data location
System. The dataset in which a global resides. You define this in the data location column on the Namespaces panel of the Namespace/Network Configuration editor. The source of global sets and kills for a replicated global is the directory (or directory and system) mapped to the global’s data location.
Data Source Name (DSN)
ODBC. A data source name identifies a specific database on a specific server system.
data type class
Objects. A data type is a class with its DATATYPE class keyword set that supports the data type interface. This interface includes a number of operations designed for validation and SQL interoperability.
data type
Objects. The data type of an attribute determines its behavior, its validation requirements, and how it is projected to SQL and clients such as Java.
database
General. A CACHE.DAT file. It can contain code and data. Via global, package, and routine mappings, any given database can be used by multiple namespaces.
database encryption
System. The process by which an InterSystems IRIS database is stored on disk in an encrypted state. When InterSystems IRIS reads the data from the disk it is automatically decrypted at runtime so that its data can be available to its legitimate users. When the data is written to disk, it is encrypted. The data on disk is also referred to as being “at rest.”
database-encryption key
System. An AES key used to encrypt an InterSystems IRIS database.
database integrity
General. The condition of a database being uncorrupted, either in its contents or its structure. The data in a database can sometimes become unreadable by degradation of its physical integrity. Internal pointers can become corrupted due to degradation of internal integrity.
dataset
General. A logical entity that represents a directory name or directory and system name in InterSystems IRIS.
deep save
Objects. A deep save saves an object and all objects that it references, as described in class reference content for the %Persistent.%Save method.
default dataset
System. The directory in which a namespace executes commands and receives any globals not independently mapped.
default start routine
System. A default start routine is run automatically when a user logs in.
dependent relationship
Objects. A parent-child relationship that defines a child table for each row of the parent table.
device accounts
System. Device accounts allow TELNET users to log in to specific routines and namespaces on your system remotely and locally. You may set up user accounts and/or device accounts using the Management Portal to facilitate better control over which users have access to specific routines, databases and namespaces.
device
General. A piece of hardware that is part of a computer system, such as a terminal, printer, disk drive, or magnetic tape drive.
directory
General. A name for a location on a disk where files can be stored. The InterSystems IRIS database files, CACHE.DAT and CACHE.EXT, reside in a directory. Only one InterSystems IRIS database file is permitted per directory.
dismount, dismounted
System. To dismount a database is to disconnect it from an instance of InterSystems IRIS. When a database is dismounted, it must be explicitly mounted again for an instance to use it.
display format
Objects. The display format of a property is the format used to display and input data.
distributed database
System. A database that is stored on multiple computers in a network. When you use InterSystems IRIS in a distributed database environment, ObjectScript routines that reside on one computer can access globals on other computers in the network, within the file protection limits established on those systems.
dot syntax
Objects. Dot syntax allows you to get and set property values and to execute methods. It also allows you to access the properties and methods of referenced and embedded objects from the object referencing them.
Dynamic Link Library (DLL)
General. A library shared by various Microsoft Windows applications.
Terms Beginning with E
embeddable class
Objects. Objects derived from an embeddable (serial) class can exist independently in memory, but, when stored to the database, exist only as data stored within a persistent object. See %SerialObject.
embedded HTML
ObjectScript. HTML that is directly embedded within ObjectScript methods or macro routines. Embedded HTML must be encased within &html<> statements.
embedded object
Objects. An instance of an embeddable class. Embedded objects are separate objects in memory but can only be stored as data embedded within a persistent object.
embedded SQL
InterSystems SQL. Embedded SQL is SQL directly embedded within ObjectScript methods or macro routines. Embedded SQL must be encased within &sql() statements.
empty string
System. A string that logically has no characters in it, often represented in text as "". Some material may also refer to this as the “null string.”
Different languages differently represent the empty string, which determines if and how it occupies real space in computer memory. For example, in ObjectScript, "" does not occupy space in memory, while, in SQL, it does. Note also that a string with no characters in it is still a string and that, depending on the context, may be treated differently from the NULL (unassigned) value.
For example, in the following ObjectScript code:
 New A
 New B
 Set A = ""
 Write A
 Write B
the first Write statement succeeds (though this is not evident visually) and the second results in an <UNDEFINED> error.
encapsulation
Objects. Encapsulation hides the internal details of a class by presenting a public interface that outlines all of the allowed interactions of the class without presenting any of the details used to perform those operations.
endian
System. Whether a system is big-endian or little-endian refers to the order in which it stores the bytes of a multibyte element. InterSystems IRIS supports both big-endian and little-endian systems. It also includes a utility, cvendian, for converting databases from one form to the other. For details about cvendian, see the section on Using cvendian to Convert Between Big-endian and Little-endian Systems in Specialized System Tools and Utilities.
Enterprise Cache Protocol (ECP)
System. The internal networking system for InterSystems IRIS. ECP networking allows you to use InterSystems IRIS in a distributed database environment that contains a configurable number of nodes and a variety of hardware and software configurations.
enumerated attribute
Objects. Enumerated attributes allow multiple choice values for a property value. The value of these attributes must be one of the predetermined choices.
Ethernet address
General. The identification of an Ethernet interface device for all interested computers. It is unique for each Ethernet interface on a network. Valid Ethernet addresses are nonzero, even, hexadecimal numbers of up to 12 digits.
Ethernet link
General. A high-speed coaxial cable that links multiple computers over a local area network.
exclusive lock
General. An exclusive lock prevents another process from viewing or editing the specified data.
If you use an exclusive lock when you open an object, it acquires an exclusive lock when the object is opened and releases it when the object is closed.
explicit reference
System. Also called extended reference. A global reference that is made with a full definition of the system and namespace where the global resides.
expression
System. A combination of keywords, operators, variables, and constants that yield a string, number, or object. An expression can perform a calculation, manipulate characters, or test data.
expression method
Objects. An object method that may be placed in-line in the code generated by the class compiler.
extended global reference
System. Also called explicit reference. A global reference that identifies the location of the global. The location can be specified as either a defined namespace or an implied namespace. Used when an InterSystems IRIS application needs to override the current namespace mapping for the global, which resolves to a different directory, or directory and system, than the one desired. For example, if the application is running in namespace ADMIN but needs to refer to a global ^PARTS in the INVEN namespace, you can use the extended reference: ^["INVEN"]PARTS. If, on the other hand, a specific physical location is desired instead of the mapping currently in force for a particular namespace, you can use an implied namespace. To refer to global ^PARTS in the directory "inven" on the computer with the directory set name "production" on a UNIX® computer, you might make the extended reference: ^["^production^/usr/inven"]PARTS.
extent index
Objects. An extent index maintains an index of all of the objects in an extent.
extent query
Objects. A query that returns the ID of every object in the extent.
extent
Objects. An extent spans the entire hierarchy tree of a specific class, called the root class. InterSystems SQL tables contain the entire extent of their corresponding class.
Terms Beginning with F
F to CDL export utility
InterSystems SQL. The F to CDL export utility converts data definitions in F.12 and later CDL files. These files can then be modified or loaded and compiled, creating classes from F constructs.
F-DBMS
InterSystems SQL. A legacy RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) predecessor of InterSystems IRIS; it is incompatible with InterSystems IRIS objects and InterSystems SQL.
factory class
Objects. Objects instantiated from the Factory class in Java manage connections to InterSystems IRIS. They also create and open instances of other InterSystems IRIS classes and provide other administrative functionality.
field
Objects. Another name for an SQL column.
file stream
Objects. A file stream provides an interface to manipulate and store large chunks of text-based or binary data in an external file. The InterSystems IRIS stream interface can be used to manipulate file streams in ObjectScript, SQL, and Java.
final class
Objects. A class that cannot be extended or subclassed.
final method
Objects. A method that cannot be overridden.
final property
Objects. A property that cannot be overridden.
foreign key
InterSystems SQL. A foreign key constrains a column in a table to point to another column in a table. The value supplied for the first column must exist in the second column.
Terms Beginning with G
GSA file
System. A GSA file is a globals save file. The GSA file extension is not a requirement, but allows InterSystems IRIS and programmers to easily identify saved globals. Other than the file extension, there is no significance to a GSA file.
Generic Buffered Interface (GBI)
System. A device I/O driver used by DTM to handle requests to and from external devices. GBIs are identified by a port number defined in the DTM.INI file.
global database
System. The underlying logical and physical data storage structure of InterSystems IRIS, in which all data is stored in a system of multiply-subscripted arrays called "globals."
global directory
System. A directory that contains a global database. It includes the database files and a list of all globals in the directory, with associated information.
global
System. A multidimensional storage structure. Globals are implemented using balanced-tree technology within an InterSystems IRIS database.
globally unique identifier (GUID)
System. A GUID is an identifier for an entity, such as an instance of a class, that is trusted to be unique for all instances of InterSystems IRIS, even across multiple systems. For example, if two independent instances of InterSystems IRIS use a common class definition that includes a GUID for each instance, then bringing the data together from these two instances will not result in any duplicate GUID values.InterSystems IRIS uses GUIDs as part of object synchronization. For general information about using GUIDs, see the class documentation for %ExtentMgr.GUID and %Library.GlobalIdentifier.
Terms Beginning with H
host name
General. The name of the server system.
host variable
InterSystems SQL. A variable that is linked, within an embedded SQL statement, to an application program variable.
Terms Beginning with I
I/O translation
System. National Language Support facility consisting of a set of tables that transform between the character set of the computer and a particular device’s character set. See also Language Configuration.
ISM
General. The InterSystems original implementation of the M language.
ITG file
System. An ASCII file that contains a database integrity report with an extension of .ITG for easy identification. An ITG file is created by a database integrity check.
identified by
Objects. A class is identified by another class when it is logically dependent on that class for its existence.
identifying relationship
Objects. An identifying relationship defines a relationship between two classes where one class is dependent upon the other for its existence.
identity
Objects. The identity, or ID, of an object uniquely identifies it within its extent.
idkey
Objects. An index that is used to designate the contents of the ID of an object. Any properties used in an idkey must remain static throughout the life of the object.
implicit global reference
System. See Mapped Global Reference.
implied namespace
System. A namespace that InterSystems IRIS creates internally when you use a directory or directory and system name in an extended global reference.
in-memory value
Objects. The value of a property while it is in memory. For some types of properties, this can differ from its stored, or on-disk, value.
include file
ObjectScript. Files containing definitions that can be used in the preprocessor phase of ObjectScript source code compilation to expand macro source routines and determine whether optional lines of code should be included. They also can be used to include a common block of code in several routines, saving the overhead of calls to a common subroutine.
incoming lock
System. A lock issued by a process on a remote client computer on an item on the local computer. It is also called a server lock, since the item being locked is located on the local computer, which is acting as a server. When you view locks, this lock appears in the Lock Table display with the system name of the remote computer that issued the LOCK request in the Owner column. The local server computer does not know which process on the remote client computer issued the LOCK nor does it track the number of locks on the item.
index collation
Objects. Index collation specifies the data translation to use when storing data in an index.
index
Objects. An index optimizes data retrieval by storing a sorted subset of the data for each object belonging to its class.
inheritance
Objects. Inheritance passes the characteristics and members of a class to all of its subclasses. It allows you to group common aspects of multiple classes together in one superclass.
install-dir
System. When generically referring to the InterSystems IRIS installation directory, the documentation uses the term install-dir. In its examples, the documentation uses C:\MyCache\. The section Default Installation Directory describes where InterSystems IRIS is installed on all supported operating systems.
instance method
Objects. A method that is invoked from a specific instance of a class and performs some action related to that instance.
instance
Objects. An implementation of a class representing a specific entity. The terms “instance” and “object” can be used interchangeably.
instantiate
Objects. To place an object instance into memory where a program can act upon it.
intermediate source code
ObjectScript. The standard 3GL (third generation language) ObjectScript source code available in InterSystems IRIS and all M implementations. Intermediate code is produced from macro source by the InterSystems IRIS compiler. At this level, all preprocessor syntax, including embedded SQL, has been resolved, and the routine contains only pure source code. It is possible to write ObjectScript routines at this level, but without the benefit of embedded SQL or other preprocessor syntax, such as macros.
IP address
InterSystems IRIS System. The numeric identifier for a computer according to the Internet Protocol (IP). InterSystems IRIS supports both IPv6 and IPv4 formats. For more information on InterSystems IRIS support for IPv6, see the section Use of IPv6 Addressing in the chapter Server Configuration Options in the Orientation Guide for Server-Side Programming.
Terms Beginning with J
JOBbed process
System. A background process created by issuing an ObjectScript JOB command at the InterSystems IRIS prompt or from within an application. On the relational server system, server masters, and the server processes they create, are examples of JOBbed processes.
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)
General. Java Database Connectivity, or JDBC, provides a standard Java interface for relational data access.
Java
General. An object-oriented language originally created by Sun Microsystems.
join
InterSystems SQL. A request for information from an InterSystems IRIS relational database base table (via a query, form, or report) in which data must be retrieved from more than one table, necessitating a link between tables.
journaling
System. A feature that, at the system manager’s option, causes InterSystems IRIS to keep a log of changes to all or selected globals in a journal file. If there is a system failure, these changes can be “rolled forward.” That is, an entire transaction can be reapplied to a database during a restore. See also Write Image Journaling.
Terms Beginning with K
KDC
System. Key Distribution Center. As part of a Kerberos installation, this is the central Kerberos server that ensures the proper authentication of all parties. Specifically, the KDC is part of the trusted third-party Kerberos server that generates the keys that form the basis of ticket-granting tickets and service tickets. On Windows, the Key Distribution Center is part of the Windows Domain Controller (DC) and is sometimes called by that name. The commonality of the two initials is coincidental.
Kerberos
System. A trusted third-party authentication system developed by Project Athena at MIT. It allows for the authentication of users or applications (collectively known as “principals”) by establishing a database of authentication information. This database is secured (and therefore trusted) and separate from any two parties performing authentication (which is why it is a “third-party” system). Kerberos is designed to be used on networks that are not necessarily secure, such as the Internet. It has been in use in large commercial and educational institutions since the late 1980’s.
key (unique index)
Objects. A key is another name for a unique index.
key (encryption)
System. A large number used with an encryption algorithm to encrypt or decrypt data.
key-encryption key
System. With InterSystems IRIS database encryption, the second key involved in the process. The first key is used to encrypt the database and the key-encryption key — the second key — is used to encrypt (and therefore protect) the first key. When a database-encryption key is activated, it is decrypted with a key-encryption key and loaded into memory for use.
keyword (class definition)
Objects. A keyword defines a specific characteristic within a class definition. Also known as a class keyword.
keyword (system element)
System. A keyword may also refer to part of the InterSystems IRIS system, such as a function name or operator.
Terms Beginning with L
language configuration
System. A set of four tables: character set, collation sequence, $X/$Y action, and pattern match; that define the device-independent aspects of National Language Support. Counterpart to the device-dependent National Language Support characteristic, I/O translation.
legacy products
System. InterSystems products that are not currently in active development. These include Open M, DSM, DTM, ISM, and MSM.
license
System. An agreement between InterSystems and its customer that defines the components of InterSystems IRIS software available to the customer and the number of users who can use each component. A customer must be licensed to run InterSystems IRIS. License information is distributed in a Product Activation Key and stored on your system in a file named cache.key.
list
Objects. An ordered collection that uses slot numbers to access data. Each list is projected to SQL as a single list field.
Local Area Network
General. A network of limited geographic extent.
Local Area Transport (LAT)
System. A legacy networking protocol originally supported for compatibility with DECnet (from Digital Equipment Corporation). It was removed from InterSystems IRIS with version 2010.2.
locale
System. The parameters that specify the user language, country, and any other, special variant preferences. A locale specifies user-visible conventions for the input, output, and processing of data, such as the representation of number and dates, and the names of days and months.
lock table
System. An InterSystems IRIS internal table where all LOCK commands issued by processes are stored. You can view this table by using the System Viewer.
log files
System. Files in the system manager’s directory containing messages about system operations, errors and metrics. These include the console log (cconsole.log), System Monitor log (SystemMonitor.log), alerts log (alerts.log), initialization log (cboot.log), and journal history log (journal.log). For information about these log files, see Monitoring Log Files in the Monitoring Guide.
log on
System. The act of signing on to the system. Users log on to InterSystems IRIS by entering their username and password when prompted.
logical format
Objects. The logical format of an object property is the format used in memory. All comparisons and calculations are performed on this format.
login role
System. Any role that becomes associated with a user by the action of authenticating to InterSystems IRIS (and not afterwards).
Terms Beginning with M
MAP file
System. A DTM.MAP file describes the set of database resources to which each namespace will refer, and so, in effect, describes the set of network connections needed for accessing data.
MSM
System. The InterSystems implementation of the M programming language originally known as “Micronetics Standard M.”
macro preprocessor
ObjectScript. A part of the ObjectScript compiler that converts macro code into usable ObjectScript code.
macro source code
ObjectScript. The highest, most flexible and permissive level of code at which routines and methods can be written. Macro source code permits the definition of macros and embedded SQL statements using a combination of ObjectScript syntax, special macro preprocessor commands, and ANSI-Standard SQL.
map
System. In InterSystems IRIS, a definition that determines how data is stored when using InterSystems SQL Storage.
In Windows, a unit within an InterSystems IRIS database consisting of 400 2048-byte blocks, residing in a flat file.
In UNIX®, a unit within an InterSystems IRIS database consisting of 400 2048-byte blocks, residing in a single UNIX® file or raw partition.
mapped global reference
System. A logical reference to a global that resides in a different directory, without using the extended reference syntax otherwise required to refer to a remote global. You can refer to the global as if it resides in the database’s data location. That home directory can be on the same computer or any other computer on the network known to your InterSystems IRIS server. The system manager defines the actual location of a mapped global using the namespace/network configuration editor. Called an implicit reference or implicit global in versions prior to ISM 6.1.
matching role
System. With a secured InterSystems IRIS application, a role that causes additional privileges to be granted. If a user holds a matching role, then, while using the application, that user is also granted whatever target roles are specified. Sometimes known as a “match role.”
metadata class
Objects. A metadata class provides an interface to examine the data stored in object applications. See the %Dictionary.ClassDefinition class.
metadata
Objects. Metadata describes data and how it is structured.
method generator
Objects. Method generators are methods that generate runtime code based on the values of class parameters.
method
Objects. An operation that can be invoked upon an object.
mount, mounted
System. To mount a database is to explicitly connect it to an instance of InterSystems IRIS, thereby making its contents immediately available for use. A database in this state is described as mounted.
multidimensional property
Objects. Multidimensional properties act like array nodes. Multidimensional attributes do not have any associated property methods, cannot be accessed using dot syntax, and are not projected to SQL, or Java.
multidrop link
General. Network hardware that connects more than two computers.
multiple inheritance
Objects. Multiple inheritance allows a class to have more than one superclass. A class inherits characteristics and class members from each of its superclasses.
Terms Beginning with N
namespace
System. A logical entity that serves as a container for programs and data. Databases provides the physical storage for these, but the association of database objects logically is done through namespaces. For example, a namespace allows you to collect objects from multiple databases into a single frame of reference so that they appear as if they were all stored together. Users need only make a simple reference to a global no matter where it resides, while the namespace mapping specifies the global’s database location.
For information on namespace names, see Configuring Namespaces in the chapter “Configuring InterSystems IRIS” in System Administration Guide.
namespace map file
System. Open M [DTM] 6.3 for Windows or DOS uses a namespace *.map file to define how directories are mapped to namespaces. Enter the name of the map file you want to use or click on the Browse button to search for the appropriate file.
National Language Support (NLS)
System. An InterSystems IRIS facility that helps you overcome differences among national languages that affect the way you enter, display, process, store, and transfer data. It consists of a set of tables that specify the internal character set, a collation sequence, pattern match, $X/$Y actions, and I/O translation. The system manager defines and loads these tables with the NLS utility. Users select tables for their processes and devices with the %NLS utility and the K and Y parameters to OPEN and USE commands.
network configuration
System. A description of the location of data within a network, and of the relationships among various components in the network. The combined entries in the Hardware Description Table, the Directory Set Location Table, and the DSM-DDR Volume Set Translation Table form this description. Although multiple configurations may be defined and stored in M/NET, only one at a time can be active.
network interface device
General. The hardware that connects a computer to a network link.
network
General. A collection of computers and connections, that allows users and programs on one computer to communicate with users and programs on other computers in the network.
node
System. One entry within a multidimensional array (global).
node
General. One computer in a network or clustered system.
Terms Beginning with O
ODBC format
Objects. The ODBC format presents data with the formatting expected by ODBC.
ODBC Type
Objects. The ODBC type of a data type determines the ODBC data type used by properties based on the data type.
ODBC
General. See Open Database Connectivity.
ODMG
General. See Object Data Management Group.
OID
Objects. See object identifier.
OREF
Objects. See object reference.
object class
Objects. An object class represents a specific entity. It can have properties and be directly instantiated.
object code
System. The lowest level of code produced by the InterSystems IRIS compiler. This is the code that is actually interpreted and executed.
Object Data Management Group
General. The Object Data Management Group, or ODMG, developed the original standard for object databases.
object identifier
Objects. An object identifier or OID uniquely identifies an object on disk within the entire database. The OID is valid for the life of an object and cannot be reused if the object is deleted.
object model
Objects. An object model describes the requirements of an application and the class hierarchy used in its development.
object reference
Objects. An object reference points to a specific object currently in memory. An object reference is only valid from the time an object is instantiated or opened until it is closed.
object-SQL projection
Objects. The object-SQL projection determines how InterSystems IRIS object functionality is projected to elements of InterSystems SQL.
object
Objects. A logical entity that encapsulates all of the data representing a specific item and the interface to manipulate that data.
ObjectScript query
Objects. An ObjectScript query uses ObjectScript code to query the database.
one-way outer join
InterSystems SQL. A programmer-defined join that designates the first table specified in the join condition as the source table and includes all rows from the source table in the output table, even if there is no match in the second table. The source table pulls relevant information out of the second table but never sacrifices its own rows for lack of a match in the second table.
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
General. The Microsoft Open Database Connectivity, or ODBC, provides a standard interface for data access on Windows.
Operating-System–based authentication
System. An authentication mechanism by which InterSystems IRIS accepts the identify of a user who has successfully authenticated to an operating system. The InterSystems IRIS user account must match the name of the operating system account. Also, once authenticated, the user’s activities are restricted by the account’s roles.
outgoing lock
System. A lock issued by a process on the local client computer on an item on a remote server computer. It is also called a client lock, since the local computer is the client. When you run the LOCKTAB utility from the Terminal or the Locks utility in System Operations Utilities, this lock appears in the Lock Table display with an asterisk preceding the pid of the process issuing the lock. If incremental locks are issued on an item that already exists in the Lock Table, these requests are not sent across the network. Rather, the local computer keeps track of the number of incremental locks on outgoing locks.
override
Objects. By default, every class inherits the class members of its superclasses. However, unless a member is marked final, you can chose to modify the member so it acts differently in the subclass. This is called overriding the member.
Terms Beginning with P
package
Objects. A package contains a set of related classes.
parameter
Objects. A class parameter is a special constant set during application design time. Class parameters are available to all instances of a class and can be used for any purpose you wish. Every data type class has a set of class parameters that impose behavior on attributes based on that data type.
parent ID
Objects. In an InterSystems IRIS relational database, a field automatically created to define the Row ID in the dependent child table when a characteristic link is defined. The Parent ID acts like a designative reference from the child table to the parent table and has the same name as the parent table.
parent-child relationship
Objects. In a parent-child relationship, the existence of child object is dependent on the existence of a parent object. That is, a child object must be associated with a parent object and that child object is deleted when the parent object is deleted.
partition
System. Another name for the process private section of memory. Each process has its own partition for data private to that process. Also called the InterSystems IRIS partition or user partition. For UNIX®, see also Raw Disk Partition.
passing by reference
System. A way of passing the address, rather than the value, of an argument. This allows access to the actual variable so that the variable’s actual value can be changed by the method, function, or routine to which it is passed.
passing by value
A way of passing the value of an argument. This provides a copy of the variable. As a result, the variable’s actual value cannot be changed by the method, function, or routine to which it is passed.
pattern match table
System. Internal table that tells InterSystems IRIS whether to treat characters as alphabetic, punctuation, numeric, or control characters.
permission
System. The ability to perform an activity on a resource. For database resources, the available permissions are Read and Write. For services, applications, or administrative actions, the available permission is Use.
persistent class
Objects. Objects of a persistent class can be stored in the database. Persistent classes inherit the persistent interface from the %Persistent class to manage data storage and retrieval.
persistent interface
Objects. The persistent interface is a set of methods used to store and retrieve objects.
point-to-point link
General. A network link that connects two computers, one at each end.
polymorphism
Objects. Runtime references to overridden methods are dispatched based on the type of object it is. For example, if the Person class has a Student subclass with an overridden method Print(), Student objects will always use the Student Print() method even when they are opened as Person objects.
populate utility
Objects. The Populate Utility, implemented by the %Populate class, allows you to add dummy objects to your database for testing purposes.
port number
General. A device number that identifies a particular network port. You must specify this number when connecting to a server from a client.
port
General. A network software protocol/interface device combination. More than one port can use the same interface device.
primary key
InterSystems SQL. A primary key is used by some systems to identify data.
primary persistent superclass
Objects. The primary persistent superclass of a class determines the persistent behavior of that class. By default, the primary persistent superclass is the leftmost persistent superclass in the list of superclasses. Typically all data associated with classes with same primary persistent superclass is stored together.
primary volume
System. The first or only volume in a volume set.
principal device
System. The input/output device associated with your process, usually your terminal or computer keyboard and monitor. For jobbed processes, you can assign the principal device in the JOB command or set it as the principal device of the parent process in the System Configuration editor. If you do not set the device in one of these ways then the default device for jobbed processes is the null device.
UNIX®: For interactive users, the terminal at which the user enters InterSystems IRIS. It is the same as the principal input device UNIX® has assigned to that user. For jobbed processes, the principal device can be assigned by the JOB command, and is /dev/null by default.
priority setting
System. In UNIX®, priority is the system-level definition of the order in which jobs are assigned system resources and responses.
priority
System. The importance of a batch job or system daemon. As a way to balance system resources, you can adjust the priorities of jobs or daemons in order to achieve the best overall performance for your system.
private
Objects. A private class member can only be accessed by methods belonging to that class. Both methods and properties can be private.
privilege
System. A specification of the ability to perform a particular action on a particular resource, such as being able to read the DocBook database. Only roles can hold privileges.
privileged routine application
System. A set of one or more InterSystems IRIS routines that are grouped together for security purposes. Such a group is treated as a single application and is represented by a single resource.
procedure
System. A named sequence of statements executed as a unit.
process-private section
System. The area of memory used solely by a particular process.
process
System. An entity scheduled by the system software, which provides a context in which an image executes. Within InterSystems IRIS, a process is the context in which server-based code executes.
Product Activation Key
System. A paper key that arrives with your software distribution on which is printed an encoded version of your InterSystems IRIS license. You must enter this information into a file called CACHE.KEY in order to activate the license.
programmer mode
System. The mode in which all program development activity takes place. In programmer mode, you initiate programs from the InterSystems IRIS prompt, and the InterSystems IRIS prompt reappears at the conclusion of every program you run. Programmer mode encompasses the InterSystems IRIS environment and all programs that can be called from it, including the InterSystems SQL development environment and environment. In programmer mode, you can create applications that users subsequently run in application mode.
project
System. A user-defined list of related source documents (such as routines or class definitions). Projects are used by Studio to help organize application development.
property collation
Objects. Property collation overrides the default translation provided by an attribute’s data type with a collation specified in the attribute definition.
property method
Objects. A method generated to control behavior of a property. The name of the property is concatenated with the behavior methods from its data type and property behavior classes at compile time to create a full set of property methods for the property.
property
Objects. A data element representing a specific characteristic associated with a class. Each object of that class contains a literal value for the property or a reference to another object representing the data. Together, a class’s properties represent its state.
public
Objects. A public class member can be seen and used by any class.
Terms Beginning with Q
query interface
Objects. The InterSystems IRIS query interface provides a common mechanism for preparing, executing, and processing queries regardless of the type or language of the queries.
query
General. A request for data that meets the specified criteria. InterSystems IRIS supports predefined queries in SQL or ObjectScript (defined in classes) or ad hoc queries (from embedded SQL or ODBC).
Terms Beginning with R
RECEIVE
System. An InterSystems IRIS system process that broadcasts InterSystems IRIS network configuration information to all known remote computers.
RSA file
System. An RSA file is a (pre-XML) routine save file. The RSA file extension is not a requirement, but allows InterSystems IRIS and programmers to easily identify saved routines. Other than the file extension, there is no significance to an RSA file.
range indicator
System. A range indicator (:) allows you to indicate a range of globals in one entry. For example A:Cost would include all globals from ^Aardvark to ^Cost, but would not include ^CrossReference.
raw disk partition
System. A UNIX® operating system division of a disk, that is not associated with a UNIX® file system. When an InterSystems IRIS database resides in a raw disk partition, it does not have UNIX® file name.
reconfiguration
System. In InterSystems IRIS networking, the alteration of either network hardware or remote system, dataset or namespace definitions.
recovery
System. A method of recovering from a loss of data integrity after a system failure.
redirection
System. A way to make the location of a global invisible to an application. InterSystems IRIS supports two types of redirection: namespace definition and replication.
reference
Objects. A reference points to another object or table, creating a one-way relationship between a property or field and the referenced object or table.
registered class
Objects. A registered class is derived from the %RegisteredObject class. InterSystems IRIS automatically manages object references for registered classes and supports polymorphism.
relational database
General. A collection of related data that is organized according to the relational model.
relationship
Objects. A two-way reference between properties of two different classes.
relative dot syntax
ObjectScript. Relative dot syntax (..) is used to reference a property or invoke a method of the current class.
remote computer
System. Any computer that is linked to the local computer via a network link.
replicated global
System. A global whose namespace mapping defines one or more locations for duplicate copies in addition to the primary data location. Any SET or KILL operations on the original copy of a replicated global are performed on all copies of that global. Any SET or KILL operations performed on a copy of a replicated global only affect the copy.
required field
Objects. A field in a table that must contain a valid non-null value before the row can be filed. See Required Property.
required property
Objects. A required property must be assigned a value before its object can be saved.
resource
System. The smallest granular unit that can be protected with InterSystems security. A resource represents one or more assets, which can be databases, access to applications, or other elements. Generally, resources can only include homogeneous sets of sets of assets.
result set
Objects. A result set contains the data returned by a query. It can be processed using the Query Interface. See %ResultSet.
role
System. An entity within InterSystems security that can receive the ability to both perform actions and view or alter data. These abilities are granted to a role in the form of privileges. When a user becomes a member of a role, it receives the role’s privileges.
role-assignment mechanism
System. A means by which a user is given various roles for using InterSystems IRIS. Role assignment can occur using a native InterSystems IRIS mechanism, LDAP, or delegated (that is, user-defined) code. It is part of the authorization process.
roll back
System. A process by which an incomplete transaction can be removed from your InterSystems IRIS database. InterSystems IRIS removes such changes as part of its recovery procedure. See Journaling, Transaction.
roll forward
System. The process of reapplying journaled changes to the database, in the event that a system failure occurs and a database is recreated from backups. See Journaling.
root class
Objects. The root class of an extent is the top class in its hierarchy. Every class is the root class of its own extent. However, the term “root class” generally refers to the primary persistent superclass of a class hierarchy, especially in the context of data storage.
routine buffers
System. The amount of virtual memory that a routine is allowed to use.
routine
System. In InterSystems IRIS, an ObjectScript program. Routines are stored in an InterSystems IRIS database.
Row ID
Objects. The Row ID uniquely identifies a row in a table. If the table is projected from an InterSystems IRIS class, the Row ID is the ID of the equivalent object (either generated automatically or specified by an ID Key).
row specification
Objects. The row specification of a class query provides information on the fields returned by that query.
row
InterSystems SQL. A group of related field values that describes an entity in the domain of a relational table. For example, in a Customers table, a row describes a single customer. Also called a “record” in traditional data processing terminology, or a “tuple” in relational database terminology.
Terms Beginning with S
SOAP
General. A protocol specification for the implementation of web services. It uses XML as its message format, and usually relies on other application layer protocols — such as Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and HTTP — for message negotiation and transmission. SOAP was formerly an acronym that stood for “Simple Object Access Protocol,” but it is no longer an acronym — it is simply the name of the protocol.
SQL computed field
Objects. An SQL computed field is calculated on demand and based on values stored in other fields.
SQL mapping
Objects. SQL mapping is used to map existing data structures to classes and tables.
SQL query
InterSystems SQL. An SQL query uses SQL to locate and retrieve information stored in the database.
SQL reserved words
InterSystems SQL. SQL reserved words have special meaning in InterSystems SQL and cannot be used as table, field, query, view, stored procedure, or index names. SQL reserved words can be used as class and property names if alternate table and field names are defined.
SQL
General. Structured Query Language. SQL is the ANSI-standard fourth generation programming language designed specifically for accessing and maintaining relational data bases.
SQLCODE
InterSystems SQL. A local variable that holds the status of executed SQL statements. If an error occurred during execution, the SQLCODE contains the number of the error.
schema evolution
Objects. Schema evolution allows you to add new class members to a class without losing the ability to access data stored using the old class definition.
search user
System. The user with which InterSystems IRIS connects to an LDAP server and whose privileges allow for searching the LDAP database. Its value is specified in the LDAP username to use for searches field on the [System] > [Security Management] > [System Security Settings] > [LDAP Options] page.
secondary volume
System. Any volume in a volume set other than the primary volume. There can be from zero through seven secondary volumes in an InterSystems IRIS database, for a total of eight volumes.
Security Advisor
System. A diagnostic tool within the Management Portal that provides feedback on those areas in which an InterSystems IRIS instance’s setup differs from that suggested by typical security standards.
security domain
System. A logical grouping of machines that roughly corresponds to a Kerberos realm or Windows domain.
selectivity
InterSystems SQL. The selectivity of a property specifies the approximate frequency of specific values within the entire distribution of values.
sequential file
General. A file whose data is stored in the order in which it is entered.
server lock
System. See Incoming Lock.
server master
System. A component of the server software that listens for connection attempts from clients connected via TCP, and spawns server processes to service those connections. Each server master is an InterSystems IRIS process.
server process
System. A JOBbed process on the server that services a single client connection. A Server Master creates a server process for this purpose.
service
System. An entity within InterSystems security that regulates access to InterSystems IRIS through an existing pathway, for example, Telnet, ODBC, or CSP. An application sits on top of a service when connecting to InterSystems IRIS.
shadowing
System. Shadowing enables a secondary computer to maintain a copy or image of selected databases located on a primary machine. Shadowing requires a source database server (primary system) and a destination shadow server (secondary system)
shallow save
Objects. A shallow save saves an object but not the objects that it references. For more details, see the class reference content for the %Persistent.%Save method.
shared lock
Objects. A shared lock holds a shared lock on an object while it is loaded from the database and an exclusive lock while it is being saved if it spans more than one node or if it is being updated. No lock is obtained for an object in a single node being saved for the first time.
shared retained lock
Objects. A shared retained lock holds a shared lock on an object from the time it is loaded from the database until it is closed and an exclusive lock while it is being saved if it spans more than one node or if it is being updated. No lock is obtained for an object in a single node being saved for the first time.
sign on
System. The act of entering InterSystems IRIS in order to use InterSystems IRIS or an InterSystems IRIS application. A user must log on to the operating system before signing on to InterSystems IRIS.
special variable
System. One of many variables that InterSystems IRIS maintains. Application developers can examine special variables to get information about the system.
state
Objects. The state of an object is comprised of the current value of each of its properties.
status code
Objects. A status code is returned by some methods and indicates whether the method was successfully executed. See %Status.
storage definition
Objects. A storage definition consists of a storage class and any defined SQL mappings. Together, these elements determine how data is stored.
storage interface
Objects. A set of methods that must be implemented when using custom storage or writing your own storage class.
storage strategy
Objects. The storage strategy used by a class evaluates to a storage definition at compile time that determines how data is stored.
stored procedure
InterSystems SQL. Stored procedures allow you to execute a query or class method from ODBC or JDBC.
stream interface
Objects. The InterSystems IRIS stream interface is used to manipulate streams in ObjectScript, SQL, and Java.
stream
Objects. A stream provides an interface to manipulate and store large chunks of data. The InterSystems IRIS stream interface can be used to manipulate streams in ObjectScript, SQL, and Java.
subclass
Objects. A subclass inherits class members and characteristics from another class, its superclass. A subclass typically must pass the “Is A” test with its superclasses—a subclass Is a superclass.
superclass
Objects. A class inherits the specifications of its superclasses, including properties, methods, class parameters, applicable class keywords, and the parameters and keywords of the inherited properties and inherited methods.
superserver
System. The server that listens on a specified port for incoming connections to InterSystems IRIS and dispatches them to the appropriate subsystem. The default superserver port is 1972; if 1972 is not available, the superserver listens on port 56772 or to the next available number higher than 56772. To set the superserver port number, use the Superserver Port Number field of the Memory and Startup page of the Management Portal ([System] > [Configuration] > [Memory and Startup]).
swizzling
Objects. The process of automatically pulling embedded and persistent objects into memory as soon as they are referenced. Also known as “lazy loading.”
system class
Objects. The classes that provide built-in functionality to InterSystems IRIS.
system configuration
System. A definition of the system resources that InterSystems IRIS uses at startup. You define system configurations with the Management Portal.
system manager’s directory
System. The directory where the InterSystems IRIS database resides that contains InterSystems IRIS system globals, system routines and routines for InterSystems IRIS manager and % utilities. It is the subdirectory MGR in your InterSystems IRIS installation directory.
system name
System. The name assigned to a node in a network. It must be unique across the network. Also called host name or computer name. Used in the Namespace/Network Configuration Editor to identify a computer in a network configuration. Called directory set in the MNET utility.
system processes
System. Windows - On Windows, you cannot adjust the priorities of the processes.
UNIX® - On UNIX®, priority is controlled by nice values. By raising the nice value for a process, you give it a lower priority; by lowering the nice value, you give the process a higher priority.
Terms Beginning with T
TCP/IP
General. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, one of the communications protocols that can govern the connection between the Relational Client and Relational Server. Also referred to as TCP.
table
InterSystems SQL. A data structure composed of rows representing specific entities and columns representing a specific data point about each entity.
target role
System. Within a secured InterSystems IRIS application, a role that is granted by an application to a user who is already the member of some other role (called a matching role). If a user holds a matching role, then, while using the application, the user can be granted one or more additional target roles.
target user
System. A user who is attempting to authenticate to an LDAP server. InterSystems IRIS attempts to locate this user in the LDAP database by using the value supplied for the LDAP Unique search attribute field on the [System] > [Security Management] > [System Security Settings] > [LDAP Options] page.
transaction
General. A logical unit of work. Application developers can define transactions using SQL or ObjectScript commands. InterSystems IRIS logs updates to globals in a transaction in the journal file. If a transaction is incomplete, it can be rolled back.
transient property
Objects. A transient property is stored in memory but not on disk.
translation methods
Objects. The translation methods are used to convert values between ODBC, display, logical, and storage formats.
trigger
InterSystems SQL. A sequence of actions defined by the developer to execute at various points during an InterSystems SQL application or an object application using InterSystems SQL Storage. Triggers are database actions initiated by INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE actions performed on a table. Triggers help maintain integrity constraints and other data dependencies.
Terms Beginning with U
UIC
System. User Identification Code. The UIC of a database determines who can have access to globals in that database. On UNIX®, a UIC consists of a groupid, followed by a comma (,) and a userid; the system manager assigns UICs to users at the UNIX® level, and uses the InterSystems IRIS MSU utility to assign a UIC to each database.
unauthenticated access
System. Access to InterSystems IRIS that is not based on any verification of user identity.
Unicode
System. An InterSystems IRIS collation designed to handle a 16-bit character set. This allows for 64K possible characters as opposed to ASCII which allows only 256 characters. This collation allows for smooth transition to foreign character sets containing more than 256 characters.
Unified Data Architecture
Objects. The Unified Data Architecture permits InterSystems IRIS to automatically maintain synchronized object and relational data structures for all data, allowing each user to choose their own access path to the data.
unique index
Objects. A unique index specifies that each object has a unique value for the attribute or combination of attributes in the index.
unmounted
System. An unmounted database is available for use by an instance of InterSystems IRIS but is not in active use. A reference to any of the contents of an unmounted database implicitly mounts it.
user account
System. The entity that allows individual users to log in to specific routines and namespaces on your system remotely and locally. You set up user accounts and/or device accounts using the System Operations Utility User Accts to facilitate better control over which users have access to specific routines, databases and namespaces.
user process
System. An InterSystems IRIS interactive process that is associated with a specific terminal at which the user has signed on to InterSystems IRIS.
Terms Beginning with V
valid subscript ranges
System. Subscript ranges are valid when all subscripts in the range are valid. Examples of valid subscript ranges would be: (1):(10) or ("a"):("P"). The first subscript in the range is inclusive, while the second is exclusive. Thus (1):(10) includes the subscript value 1 but does not include the value 10. This allows InterSystems IRIS to define an upper boundary on the range.
variable
System. A symbolic name that is used to reference a data value. Variables can be local or global. Local variables reside in the local symbol table associated with a given partition. Global variables reside on disk.
view
InterSystems SQL. A view presents data from one or more tables that meets a specified criteria.
virtual field
InterSystems SQL. A field that does not correspond directly to a single stored value but instead is composed of several stored values. For example, the Row ID field for a child table is sometimes composed of two stored values—the Row ID of the parent and a subscript corresponding to a particular child row.
virtual table
InterSystems SQL. A named table derived from one or more base tables that is not directly represented in physical storage. Views and query output are examples of virtual tables.
Terms Beginning with W
watchpoint
System. Variable that you identify in a ZBREAK command. When its value is changed via a SET or KILL command, you can cause the interruption of routine execution and/or the execution of debugging actions you define within the ZBREAK command.
wide-area network
General. A network of large geographic extent, typically greater than one kilometer.
write image journaling
System. A way to update an InterSystems IRIS database that minimizes the possibility of degradation of the internal integrity of the database, by retaining a copy of all modifications that the Write Daemon has not yet actually written into the database.
Terms Beginning with X
XData
General. A class member that holds a named block of well-formed XML for use after compilation. While an XData block may contain any structured information, it is typically used with Ensemble or Zen classes.
XML
General. eXtensible Markup Language. A standard and set of technologies for defining and working with customized markup languages.
Terms Beginning with Z
Zen
System. An application framework from InterSystems for creating Web applications from pre-built object components. These components automatically create standard HTML and JavaScript needed to render the applications; they also provide a common object model that is shared between the user’s browser and the application logic running on the server. Zen is based on Web Server Page (CSP) and InterSystems IRIS objects.