Caché ObjectScript Reference
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Preface : 
 
 
Reference A: 
  Symbols Used in ObjectScript — A table of characters used in ObjectScript as operators, and so on.
Abbreviations Used in ObjectScript — A table of abbreviations for commands, functions, and special variables available in ObjectScript.
Reference B: 
  BREAK — Interrupts execution at a breakpoint. Enables or disables user interrupts.
CATCH — Identifies a block of code to execute when an exception occurs.
CLOSE — Closes a file or a device.
CONTINUE — Jumps to FOR, WHILE, or DO WHILE command and re-executes test and loop.
DO — Calls a routine.
DO WHILE — Executes code while a condition exists.
ELSE — Clause of block-oriented IF command.
ELSEIF — Clause of block-oriented IF command.
FOR — Executes a block of code repeatedly, testing at the beginning of each loop.
GOTO — Transfers control.
HALT — Terminates execution of the current process.
HANG — Suspends execution for a specified number of seconds.
IF — Evaluates an expression, then selects which block of code to execute based on the truth value of the expression.
JOB — Runs a process in background.
KILL — Deletes variables.
LOCK — Enables a process to apply and release locks to control access to data resources.
MERGE — Merges global nodes or subtrees from source into destination.
NEW — Creates empty local variable environment.
OPEN — Acquires ownership of a device or file for input/output operations.
QUIT — Terminates execution of a loop structure or a routine.
READ — Accepts input and stores it in a variable.
RETURN — Terminates execution of a routine.
SET — Assigns a value to a variable.
TCOMMIT — Marks the successful completion of a transaction.
THROW — Explicitly throws an exception to the next exception handler.
TROLLBACK — Rolls back an unsuccessful transaction.
TRY — Identifies a block of code to monitor for errors during execution.
TSTART — Marks the beginning of a transaction.
USE — Establishes a device as the current device.
VIEW — Reads and writes database blocks and modifies data in memory.
WHILE — Executes code while a condition is true.
WRITE — Displays output to current device.
XECUTE — Executes the specified commands.
ZKILL — Deletes a node while preserving the node’s descendants.
ZNSPACE — Sets the current namespace.
ZTRAP — Forces an error with a specified error code.
ZWRITE — Displays variable names and their values and/or expression values.
ZZDUMP — Displays an expression in hexadecimal dump format.
ZZWRITE — Displays the values of variables or expressions.
Reference C: 
  $ASCII — Converts a character to a numeric code.
$BIT — Returns and or sets the bit value of a specified position in a bitstring.
$BITCOUNT — Returns the number of bits in a bitstring.
$BITFIND — Returns the position of the specified bit value within a bitstring.
$BITLOGIC — Performs bit-wise operations on bitstrings.
$CASE — Compares expressions and returns the value of the first matching case.
$CHAR — Converts the integer value of an expression to the corresponding ASCII or Unicode character.
$CLASSMETHOD — Executes a named class method in the designated class.
$CLASSNAME — Returns the name of a class.
$COMPILE — Compiles source code, producing executable object code.
$DATA — Checks if a variable contains data.
$DECIMAL — Returns a number converted to a Caché floating point value.
$DOUBLE — Returns a number converted to a 64-bit floating-point value.
$EXTRACT — Extracts a substring from a character string by position, or replaces a substring by position.
$FACTOR — Converts an integer to a $BIT bitstring.
$FIND — Finds a substring by value and returns an integer specifying its end position in the string.
$FNUMBER — Formats a numeric value with a specified format; optionally rounds or zero fills to a specified precision.
$GET — Returns the data value of a specified variable.
$INCREMENT — Adds a specified increment to the numeric value of a variable.
$INUMBER — Validates a numeric value and converts it to internal format.
$ISOBJECT — Returns whether an expression is an object reference (OREF).
$ISVALIDDOUBLE — Validates a $DOUBLE numeric value and returns a boolean; optionally provides range checking.
$ISVALIDNUM — Validates a numeric value and returns a boolean; optionally provides range checking.
$JUSTIFY — Right-aligns an expression within a specified width, rounding to a specified number of fractional digits.
$LENGTH — Returns the number of characters or delimited substrings in a string.
$LIST — Returns or replaces elements in a list.
$LISTBUILD — Builds a list of elements from the specified expressions.
$LISTDATA — Indicates whether the specified element exists and has a data value.
$LISTFIND — Searches a specified list for the requested value.
$LISTFROMSTRING — Creates a list from a string.
$LISTGET — Returns an element in a list, or a specified default value if the requested element is undefined.
$LISTLENGTH — Returns the number of elements in a specified list.
$LISTNEXT — Retrieves elements sequentially from a list.
$LISTSAME — Compares two lists and returns a boolean value.
$LISTTOSTRING — Creates a string from a list.
$LISTUPDATE — Updates a list by optionally replacing a specified list element or sequence of elements.
$LISTVALID — Determines if an expression is a list.
$LOCATE — Locates the first match of a regular expression in a string.
$MATCH — Matches a regular expression to a string.
$METHOD — Supports calls to an instance method.
$NAME — Returns the name value of a variable or a portion of a subscript reference.
$NCONVERT — Converts a number to a binary value encoded in a string of 8-bit characters.
$NEXT — Returns the value of the next subscript in a subscripted variable.
$NORMALIZE — Validates and returns a numeric value; rounds to a specified precision.
$NOW — Returns the local date and time with fractional seconds for the current process.
$NUMBER — Validates and returns a numeric value; optionally provides rounding and range checking.
$ORDER — Returns the next local variable or the subscript of a local or global variable.
$PARAMETER — Returns the value of the specified class parameter.
$PIECE — Returns or replaces a substring, using a delimiter.
$PREFETCHOFF — Ends pre-fetching of globals.
$PREFETCHON — Establishes pre-fetch for specified globals.
$PROPERTY — Supports reference to a particular property of an instance.
$QLENGTH — Returns the number of subscript levels in a variable.
$QSUBSCRIPT — Returns a variable name or a subscript name.
$QUERY — Performs a physical scan of a local or global array.
$RANDOM — Returns a pseudo-random integer value in the specified range.
$REPLACE — Returns a new string that consists of a string-for-string substring replacement from an input string.
$REVERSE — Returns the characters in a string in reverse order.
$SCONVERT — Converts a binary encoded value to a number.
$SELECT — Returns the value associated with the first true expression.
$SEQUENCE — Increments a global variable shared by multiple processes.
$SORTBEGIN — Initiates a sorting mode to improve performance of multiple sets to a global.
$SORTEND — Concludes the sorting mode initiated by $SORTBEGIN.
$STACK — Returns information about active contexts saved on the process call stack.
$TEXT — Returns a line of source code found at the specified location.
$TRANSLATE — Returns a new string that consists of character-for-character replacement of a source string.
$VIEW — Returns the contents of memory locations.
$WASCII — Returns the numeric code corresponding to a character, recognizing surrogate pairs.
$WCHAR — Returns the character corresponding to a numeric code, recognizing surrogate pairs.
$WEXTRACT — Extracts a substring from a character string by position, or replaces a substring by position, recognizing surrogate pairs.
$WFIND — Finds a substring by value and returns an integer specifying its end position in the string, recognizing surrogate pairs.
$WISWIDE — Returns a flag indicating whether a string contains surrogate pairs.
$WLENGTH — Returns the number of characters in a string, recognizing surrogate pairs.
$WREVERSE — Returns the characters in a string in reverse order, recognizing surrogate pairs.
$XECUTE — Executes a specified command line.
Reference D: 
  $ZABS — Absolute value function.
$ZARCCOS — Inverse (arc) cosine function.
$ZARCSIN — Inverse (arc) sine function.
$ZARCTAN — Inverse (arc) tangent function.
$ZCOS — Cosine function.
$ZCOT — Cotangent function.
$ZCSC — Cosecant function.
$ZDATE — Validates a date and converts it from internal format to the specified display format.
$ZDATEH — Validates a date and converts it from display format to Caché internal format.
$ZDATETIME — Validates a date and time and converts it from internal format to the specified display format.
$ZDATETIMEH — Validates a date and time and converts from display format to Caché internal format.
$ZEXP — Exponential function (inverse of natural logarithm).
$ZHEX — Converts a hexadecimal string to a decimal number and vice versa.
$ZLN — Returns the natural logarithm of the specified number.
$ZLOG — Returns the base 10 logarithm value of the specified positive numeric expression.
$ZPOWER — Returns the value of a number raised to a specified power.
$ZSEC — Returns the trigonometric secant of the specified angle value.
$ZSIN — Returns the trigonometric sine of the specified angle value.
$ZSQR — Returns the square root of a specified number.
$ZTAN — Returns the trigonometric tangent of the specified angle value.
$ZTIME — Validates a time and converts it from internal format to the specified display format.
$ZTIMEH — Validates a time and converts it from display format to Caché internal format.
Reference E: 
  PRINT — Displays lines of code from the current routine on the current device.
ZBREAK — Sets a breakpoint or watchpoint.
ZINSERT — Inserts a line of code in the current routine.
ZLOAD — Loads a routine into the current routine buffer.
ZPRINT — Displays lines of code from the current routine on the current device.
ZREMOVE — Erases a line or range of lines from the current routine.
ZSAVE — Saves the current routine.
ZZPRINT — Displays one or more source code lines from a routine.
Reference F: 
  $DEVICE — Contains user-specified device status information.
$ECODE — Contains the current error code string.
$ESTACK — Contains the number of context frames saved on the call stack from a user-defined point.
$ETRAP — Contains a string of ObjectScript commands to be executed when an error occurs.
$HALT — Contains a halt trap routine call.
$HOROLOG — Contains the local date and time for the current process.
$IO — Contains the ID of the current input/output device.
$JOB — Contains the ID of the current process.
$KEY — Contains the terminator character from the most recent READ.
$NAMESPACE — Contains the namespace for the current stack level.
$PRINCIPAL — Contains the ID of the principal I/O device.
$QUIT — Contains a flag indicating what kind of QUIT is required to exit the current context.
$ROLES — Contains the roles assigned to the current process.
$STACK — Contains the number of context frames saved on the call stack.
$STORAGE — Contains the number of bytes available for local variable storage.
$SYSTEM — Contains system information about system objects.
$TEST — Contains the truth value resulting from the last command using the timeout option.
$THIS — Contains the current class context.
$THROWOBJ — Contains the OREF from an unsuccessful THROW.
$TLEVEL — Contains the current nesting level for transaction processing.
$USERNAME — Contains the username for the current process.
$X — Contains the current horizontal position of the cursor.
$Y — Contains the current vertical position of the cursor.
$ZA — Contains the status of the last READ on the current device.
$ZB — Contains status information for the current I/O device.
$ZCHILD — Contains the ID of the last child process.
$ZEOF — Contains flag indicating whether end-of-file has been reached.
$ZEOS — Contains end-of-stream status when reading a compressed stream.
$ZERROR — Contains the name and location of the last error.
$ZHOROLOG — Contains the number of seconds elapsed since Caché startup.
$ZIO — Contains information about the current terminal I/O device.
$ZJOB — Contains job status information.
$ZMODE — Contains current I/O device OPEN parameters.
$ZNAME — Contains the current routine name.
$ZNSPACE — Contains the current namespace name.
$ZORDER — Contains the value of the next global node.
$ZPARENT — Contains the ID of the parent process of the current process.
$ZPI — Contains the value of pi.
$ZPOS — Contains the current file position during the reading of a sequential file.
$ZREFERENCE — Contains the current global reference.
$ZSTORAGE — Contains the maximum available memory for a process.
$ZTIMESTAMP — Contains the current date and time in Coordinated Universal Time format.
$ZTIMEZONE — Contains the time zone offset from the Greenwich meridian.
$ZTRAP — Contains the location of the current error trap handler.
$ZVERSION — Contains a string describing the current version of Caché.
Reference G: 
  ^$GLOBAL — Provides information about globals.
^$JOB — Provides Caché process (job) information.
^$LOCK — Provides lock name information.
^$ROUTINE — Provides routine information.
Reference H: 
  $ZBOOLEAN — Bitwise logical operation function.
$ZCONVERT — String conversion function.
$ZCRC — Checksum function.
$ZCYC — Cyclical-redundancy check for data integrity.
$ZDASCII — Converts an eight-byte string to a $DOUBLE floating point number.
$ZDCHAR — Converts a $DOUBLE floating point number to an eight-byte string.
$ZF — Invokes non-ObjectScript programs or functions from ObjectScript routines.
$ZF(-1) — Executes an operating system command as a spawned child process and waits for the child process to return.
$ZF(-2) — Executes an operating system command as a spawned child process and returns immediately.
$ZF(-3) — Loads a Dynamic-Link Library (DLL) and executes a library function.
$ZF(-4) — Provides utility functions used with $ZF(-5) and $ZF(-6).
$ZF(-5) — Executes a DLL function loaded using $ZF(-4).
$ZF(-6) — Executes a DLL function indexed using $ZF(-4).
$ZISWIDE — Checks whether a string contains any 16-bit wide characters.
$ZLASCII — Converts a four-byte string to a number.
$ZLCHAR — Converts a number to a four-byte string.
$ZNAME — Validates the specified name string as a legal identifier.
$ZPOSITION — Returns the number of characters in an expression that can fit within a specified field width.
$ZQASCII — Converts an eight-byte string to a number.
$ZQCHAR — Converts a number to an eight-byte string.
$ZSEARCH — Returns the full file specification, pathname and filename, of a specified file.
$ZSEEK — Establishes a new offset into the current sequential file.
$ZSTRIP — Removes types of characters and individual characters from a specified string.
$ZVERSION(1) — Returns the operating system type.
$ZWASCII — Converts a two-byte string to a number.
$ZWCHAR — Converts a number to a two-byte string.
$ZWIDTH — Returns the total width of the characters in an expression.
$ZWPACK and $ZWBPACK — Packs two 8-bit characters into a single 16-bit character.
$ZWUNPACK and $ZWBUNPACK — Unpacks a single 16-bit character to two 8-bit characters.
$ZZENKAKU — Converts Japanese katakana characters from half-width to full-width.
Reference I: 
  Replacements for ObjectScript $ZUTIL Functions — Class methods and properties to replace $ZUTIL ($ZU) functions that are no longer documented.
Reference J: 
  MV — Invokes the MultiValue Shell.
MVCALL — Calls a MultiValue subroutine.
MVCRT — Performs MultiValue printing to terminal.
MVDIM — Dimensions an array of variables for MultiValue use.
MVPRINT — Performs MultiValue printing to terminal or printer.
$CHANGE — Performs MultiValue substring replacement.
$MV — Builds or modifies a MultiValue dynamic array.
$MVAT — Performs MultiValue screen cursor control or sets screen display option.
$MVFMT — Performs MultiValue formatting of a string or numeric.
$MVFMTS — Performs MultiValue formatting of elements of a dynamic array.
$MVICONV — Performs MultiValue external-to-internal conversion of a string.
$MVICONVS — Performs MultiValue external-to-internal conversion of elements of a dynamic array.
$MVINMAT — Returns the number of MultiValue array elements.
$MVLOWER — Lowers MultiValue dynamic array delimiters to next level.
$MVOCONV — Performs MultiValue internal-to-external conversion of a string.
$MVOCONVS — Performs MultiValue internal-to-external conversion of elements of a dynamic array.
$MVRAISE — Raises MultiValue dynamic array delimiters to next level.
$MVTRANS — Reads field data from a MultiValue file.
$MVname Special Variables by Name — Caché special variables corresponding to MultiValue system variables.
$MVV(n) Special Variables by Number — Caché special variables corresponding to MultiValue system variables.
Reference K: 
  DO (legacy version) — Argumentless: executes the block of code that immediately follows it in the same program.
FOR (legacy version) — Executes a command loop repeatedly, testing at the beginning of each loop.
IF (legacy version) — Evaluates an expression, then selects which line of code to execute based on the truth value of the expression.
ZQUIT (legacy command) — Exits a program with error handling.
ZSYNC (legacy command) — Synchronizes and forces the end of networked transactions for the current job.
$ZBITAND (legacy function) — Bitstring function – AND.
$ZBITCOUNT (legacy function) — Bitstring function – COUNT.
$ZBITFIND (legacy function) — Bitstring function – FIND.
$ZBITGET (legacy function) — Bitstring function – GET.
$ZBITLEN (legacy function) — Bitstring function – LENGTH.
$ZBITNOT (legacy function) — Bitstring function – NOT
$ZBITOR (legacy function) — Bitstring function – OR.
$ZBITSET (legacy function) — Bitstring function – SET.
$ZBITSTR (legacy function) — Bitstring function – STRING.
$ZBITXOR (legacy function) — Bitstring function – XOR.
$ZINCREMENT (legacy function) — Adds a specified increment to the existing value of a global or local variable.
$ZNEXT (legacy function) — Returns a full reference to the next array node.
$ZORDER (legacy function) — Returns the full reference for the next array node subscript.
$ZPREVIOUS (legacy function) — Returns the previous array node subscript for the specified variable.
$ZSORT (legacy function) — Returns the next subscript in the array of the specified subscripted variable.