Caché MultiValue Basic Reference
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Contents

Preface : 
 
 
Reference A: 
 
  • Symbols Used in Caché MVBasic — A table of characters used in Caché MVBasic as operators, etc.
  • Reference B: 
     
  • ABORT, ABORTE, ABORTM — Terminates program execution and returns to MVBasic shell.
  • ASSIGN — Assigns a value to the SYSTEM or STATUS functions.
  • BEGIN TRANSACTION — Begins a transaction.
  • BREAK — Enables or disables keys that pause program execution.
  • BSCAN — Traverses the unique keys in an index, or the item ids in an inode-type file.
  • CALL — Transfers control to an external subroutine.
  • CASE — Selects one of several statements based on the value of expressions.
  • CATCH — Identifies a block of code to execute when an exception occurs.
  • CHAIN — Executes a MultiValue command from a program, exiting the program.
  • CHANGE — Replaces all instances of a substring in a variable.
  • CLEAR — Resets variables not assigned to a common storage area.
  • CLEARCOM (CLEARCOMMON) — Resets variables assigned to a common storage area.
  • CLEARDATA — Clears all data stored by the DATA statement.
  • CLEARFILE — Deletes all records from a MultiValue file.
  • CLEARINPUT — Clears input data from the type-ahead buffer.
  • CLEARSELECT — Resets active select lists.
  • CLOSE — Closes a MultiValue file.
  • CLOSESEQ — Closes a file opened for sequential access.
  • COMMIT — Commits all changes made during the current transaction.
  • COM (COMMON) — Lists variables available to external subroutines.
  • CONTINUE — Jumps to FOR or LOOP statements and re-executes test and loop.
  • CONVERT — Replaces single characters in a string.
  • CREATE — Creates a file for sequential access.
  • CRT — Displays on the terminal screen.
  • DATA — Provides user input data.
  • DEBUG — Interrupts program execution to enter debug mode.
  • DEFFUN — Declares a user-defined function
  • DEL — Deletes an element from a dynamic array.
  • DELETE, DELETEU — Deletes a record from a MultiValue file.
  • DELETELIST — Deletes a saved select list.
  • DELETESEQ — Deletes a sequential file.
  • DIM (DIMENSION) — Dimensions an array of variables.
  • DISPLAY — Displays on the terminal screen.
  • ECHO — Suppresses user input display on the screen.
  • END — Terminates a block of code or a program.
  • END TRANSACTION — Specifies where to continue execution after a transaction.
  • ENTER — Transfers control to an external subroutine.
  • EQUATE — Replaces a symbol with a value at compile time.
  • ERRMSG — Displays the specified error message.
  • EXECUTE — Executes a MultiValue command from within a program, passing and returning values.
  • EXIT — Exits a LOOP...REPEAT or FOR...NEXT statement.
  • FILELOCK — Locks a MultiValue file.
  • FILEUNLOCK — Unlocks a MultiValue file.
  • FIND — Finds an element of a dynamic array by exact value.
  • FINDSTR — Finds an element of a dynamic array by substring value.
  • FLUSH — Flushes (immediately applies) writes to a sequential I/O file.
  • FOOTING — Prints a footer at the bottom of each output page.
  • FORMLIST — Selects field ids into a numbered select list.
  • FOR...NEXT — Repeats a group of statements a specified number of times.
  • FUNCTION — Defines an external function.
  • GET(ARG.) — Retrieves the next command line argument.
  • GETLIST — Retrieves a saved select list.
  • GOSUB — Transfers program execution to a label, with return option.
  • GOTO — Transfers program execution to a label.
  • HEADING — Prints a header at the top of each output page.
  • HUSH — Suppresses all screen display.
  • IF...THEN...ELSE — Conditionally executes a group of statements, depending on the value of an expression.
  • IN — Reads a single character of user input.
  • INPUT — Receives user input.
  • INPUTCLEAR — Clears input data from the type-ahead buffer.
  • INPUTCTRL — Filters control characters from input.
  • INPUTERR — Writes a message to the user terminal.
  • INPUTIF — Receives data from input buffer.
  • INPUTNULL — Specifies a null character for INPUT.
  • INS — Inserts data in a dynamic array.
  • $KILL — Deletes variables.
  • LET — Assigns a value to a variable.
  • LOCATE — Finds an element in a specified part of a dynamic array by exact value.
  • LOCK — Obtains a logical process lock.
  • LOOP...REPEAT — Repeats a block of statements while a condition is true or until a condition becomes true.
  • MAT — Assigns values to all the elements in a dimensioned array.
  • MATBUILD — Builds a dynamic array from a dimensioned array.
  • MATPARSE — Builds a dimensioned array from a dynamic array.
  • MATREAD, MATREADL, MATREADU — Reads data from a MultiValue file to a dimensioned array.
  • MATWRITE, MATWRITEU — Writes data from a dimensioned array to a MultiValue file record.
  • $MERGE — Merge two arrays.
  • NAP — Suspends processing for a specified number of milliseconds.
  • NOBUF — Turns off buffering for sequential file I/O.
  • NULL — Performs no operation, used in a clause.
  • ON — Transfers program execution to one of several internal subroutines or labels.
  • OPEN — Opens a MultiValue file.
  • OPENINDEX — Opens an index.
  • OPENPATH — Opens a directory.
  • OPENSEQ — Opens a file for sequential access.
  • $OPTIONS — Sets configuration options for MultiValue implementations.
  • OUT — Displays the character(s) specified by the corresponding numeric code(s).
  • PAGE — Advances printing to the next output page.
  • PCPERFORM — Issues an operating system command and returns to MVBasic.
  • PERFORM — Executes a MultiValue command from a program and returns.
  • PRECISION — Specifies the maximum number of decimal digits when transforming a floating point number.
  • PRINT — Prints to the terminal or to a specified device.
  • PRINTER — Specifies whether to direct output to the printer.
  • PRINTER RESET — Resets terminal or default printer channel characteristics.
  • PROCREAD — When called by a procedure, reads the input buffer contents.
  • PROCWRITE — When called by a procedure, writes to the input buffer.
  • PROG (PROGRAM) — Specifies the program name.
  • PROMPT — Sets the user input prompt.
  • RANDOMIZE — Initializes the random-number generator.
  • READ, READL, READU, READV, READVL, READVU — Reads data from a MultiValue file.
  • READBLK — Reads a block of data from a sequential file.
  • READLIST — Reads the remaining field ids from a select list.
  • READNEXT — Reads the next field id from a select list.
  • READNEXT KEY — Reads the next key and item id from an index.
  • READPREV — Reads the previous field id from a select list.
  • READSEQ — Reads a line of data from a sequential file.
  • RECORDLOCKL, RECORDLOCKU — Locks a record in a MultiValue file.
  • RELEASE — Releases record locks.
  • REM — Includes a comment in a program.
  • REMOVE — Extracts sequential elements of a dynamic array.
  • RETURN — Returns from a subroutine or function.
  • REVREMOVE — Extracts sequential elements of a dynamic array in reverse order.
  • ROLLBACK — Reverts all changes made during the current transaction.
  • RQM — Suspends processing for a specified duration.
  • SEEK — Repositions the file pointer for a sequential file.
  • SEEK(ARG.) — Points to the next command line argument.
  • SELECT, SELECTN, SELECTV — Selects items into a select list.
  • SELECT ATKEY — Selects a specified key type into a select list.
  • SELECTE — Copies select list 0 to a named select list.
  • SELECTINDEX — Selects an index.
  • SETREM — Positions the remove pointer in a dynamic array.
  • SLEEP — Suspends processing for a specified duration.
  • SSELECT, SSELECTN, SSELECTV — Selects and sorts items into a select list.
  • STATUS — Provides file status information.
  • STOP, STOPE, STOPM — Terminates program execution and returns to the calling environment.
  • SUBROUTINE — Defines an external subroutine.
  • SWAP — Replaces all instances of a substring in a variable.
  • TCLREAD — Copies the terminal command line into a variable.
  • THROW — Throws an exception from a TRY block to a CATCH exception handler.
  • TRANSACTION ABORT — Reverts all changes made during the current transaction.
  • TRANSACTION COMMIT — Commits all changes made during the current transaction.
  • TRANSACTION START — Begins a transaction.
  • TRY — Identifies a block of code to monitor for exceptions during execution.
  • UNLOCK — Releases a process lock.
  • WEOFSEQ — Writes an end-of-file to a sequential file.
  • WRITE, WRITEU, WRITEV, WRITEVU — Writes data to a record in a MultiValue file.
  • WRITEBLK — Writes data to a sequential file.
  • WRITELIST — Saves a select list.
  • WRITESEQ, WRITESEQF — Writes a line of data to a sequential file.
  • $XECUTE — Executes a Caché ObjectScript command.
  • Reference C: 
     
  • @ (at sign) — Sets screen cursor position or screen display option.
  • ABS — Returns the absolute value of a number.
  • ABSS — Returns the absolute value of each element in a dynamic array.
  • ACCESS — Returns information about the current MultiValue file called from a dictionary.
  • ACOS — Returns the arc-cosine of an angle.
  • ADDS — Adds the values of corresponding elements in two dynamic arrays.
  • ALPHA — Determines if a string is alphabetic or not.
  • ANDS — Returns the logical AND of corresponding elements of two dynamic arrays.
  • ASCII — Converts a string from EBCDIC to ASCII.
  • ASIN — Returns the arc-sine of an angle.
  • ASSIGNED — Determines if a variable is assigned.
  • ATAN — Returns the arctangent of a number.
  • BITAND — Returns the bitwise AND for two bit strings.
  • BITNOT — Sets the specified bit in a bitstring to its opposite value.
  • BITOR — Returns the bitwise OR for two bit strings.
  • BITRESET — Sets the specified bit in a bitstring to 0.
  • BITSET — Sets the specified bit in a bitstring to 1.
  • BITTEST — Tests the value of the specified bit in a bitstring.
  • BITXOR — Returns the bitwise XOR for two bit strings.
  • BYTE — Returns the character corresponding to the specified character code.
  • BYTELEN — Returns the number of bytes in a string.
  • CALCULATE — Returns the results of an I-type calculation.
  • CATS — Concatenates the values of corresponding elements in two dynamic arrays.
  • CHANGE — Replaces a substring in a string.
  • CHAR — Returns the character corresponding to the specified character code.
  • CHARS — Returns the character corresponding to the specified character code for each element of a dynamic array.
  • CHECKSUM — Returns a checksum number for a string.
  • COL1 — Returns the FIELD substring start position.
  • COL2 — Returns the FIELD substring end position.
  • CONVERT — Replaces single characters in a string.
  • COS — Returns the cosine of an angle.
  • COSH — Returns the hyperbolic cosine of an angle.
  • COUNT — Returns the number of instances of a substring in a string.
  • COUNTS — Returns the number of instances of a substring in each element of a dynamic array.
  • $DATA ($D) — Checks if a variable contains data.
  • DATE — Returns the current local system date in internal format.
  • DCOUNT — Returns the number of delimited substrings in a string.
  • DELETE — Deletes an element from a dynamic array.
  • DIV — Integer division of two values.
  • DIVS — Divides the corresponding elements in two dynamic arrays (zero divide not allowed).
  • DIVSZ — Divides the corresponding elements in two dynamic arrays (zero divide allowed).
  • DOWNCASE — Coverts alphabetic characters to lowercase.
  • DQUOTE — Encloses a value in double quotation marks.
  • DTX — Converts a number from decimal to hexadecimal.
  • EBCDIC — Converts a string from ASCII to EBCDIC.
  • EOF(ARG.) — Returns whether the command line pointer is past the last argument.
  • EQS — Performs an equality comparison on elements of two dynamic arrays.
  • EREPLACE — Replaces a substring in a string.
  • EXISTS — Returns the existence status of variables and their dimensioned array subnodes.
  • EXP — Returns e (the base of natural logarithms) raised to a power.
  • EXTRACT — Finds the data value of an element of a dynamic array by delimiter position.
  • FADD — Adds two floating point numbers.
  • FDIV — Divides two floating point numbers.
  • FIELD — Returns the specified substring, based on a delimiter.
  • FIELDS — Returns a dynamic array of substrings, based on a delimiter.
  • FIELDSTORE — Replaces data in a delimited string.
  • FILEINFO — Returns information about an open file.
  • FIX — Returns a floating point number with the specified number of decimal digits.
  • FMT — Formats a value for display.
  • FMTS — Formats each element of a dynamic array for display.
  • FMUL — Multiplies two floating point numbers.
  • FOLD — Divides a string into substring units separated by a delimiter.
  • FSUB — Subtracts two floating point numbers.
  • GES — Performs a greater than or equal to comparison on elements of two dynamic arrays.
  • $GET — Returns the data value of a specified variable.
  • GETENV — Returns the value of the specified environment variable.
  • GETPTR — Returns print channel details.
  • GETPU — Returns the name of the output device for a print channel.
  • GETREM — Returns the position of the Remove pointer in a dynamic array.
  • GROUP — Returns the specified substring, based on a delimiter.
  • GTS — Performs a greater than comparison on elements of two dynamic arrays.
  • ICONV — Converts a value from external format to internal format.
  • ICONVS — Converts a dynamic array from external format to internal format.
  • IFS — Returns a value for each dynamic array element based on the truth value of that element.
  • INDEX — Returns starting position of a substring in a string.
  • INDEXS — Returns the starting position of a substring for each element of a dynamic array.
  • INDICES — Returns information about a file's secondary key indices.
  • INMAT — Returns the number of array elements.
  • INSERT — Inserts data in a dynamic array.
  • INT — Returns the integer component of an expression.
  • ISOBJECT — Returns whether or not a something is a Caché object.
  • ITYPE — Returns the I-type value from the file dictionary.
  • KEYIN — Receives a single character of user input.
  • LEFT — Returns a specified number of characters from the left end of a string.
  • LEN — Returns the number of characters in a string.
  • LENS — Returns the length of each element of a dynamic array.
  • LES — Performs a less than or equal to comparison on elements of two dynamic arrays.
  • $LIST ($LI) — Returns elements in a list.
  • $LISTBUILD ($LB) — Builds a list of elements from the specified expressions.
  • $LISTDATA ($LD) — Indicates whether the specified element exists and has a data value.
  • $LISTFIND ($LF) — Searches a specified list for the requested value.
  • $LISTFROMSTRING ($LFS) — Creates a list from a string.
  • $LISTGET ($LG) — Returns an element in a list, or a specified default value if the requested element is undefined.
  • $LISTLENGTH ($LL) — Returns the number of elements in a specified list.
  • $LISTNEXT — Retrieves elements sequentially from a list.
  • $LISTSAME ($LS) — Compares two lists and returns a boolean value.
  • $LISTTOSTRING ($LTS) — Creates a string from a list.
  • $LISTVALID — Determines if an expression is a list.
  • LN — Returns the natural logarithm of a number.
  • LOWER — Lowers dynamic array delimiters to next level.
  • LTS — Performs a less than comparison on elements of two dynamic arrays.
  • MAXIMUM — Returns the largest numeric value from the elements of a dynamic array.
  • MINIMUM — Returns the smallest numeric value from the elements of a dynamic array.
  • MOD — Modulo division of two values.
  • MODS — Modulo division of corresponding elements in two dynamic arrays (zero divide not allowed).
  • MODSZ — Modulo division of corresponding elements in two dynamic arrays (zero divide allowed).
  • MULS — Multiplies the values of corresponding elements in two dynamic arrays.
  • NEG — Returns the inverse sign of a number.
  • NEGS — Returns the inverse sign of each number in a dynamic array.
  • NES — Performs an inequality comparison on elements of two dynamic arrays.
  • NOT — Returns the logical complement of an expression.
  • NOTS — Returns the logical complement of each element of a dynamic array.
  • NUM — Returns whether a value is numeric.
  • NUMS — Returns whether each element in a dynamic array is numeric.
  • OCONV — Converts a value from internal format to external format.
  • OCONVS — Converts dynamic array element values from internal format to external format.
  • $ORDER ($O) — Returns the next local variable or the subscript of a local or global variable.
  • ORS — Returns the logical OR of corresponding elements of two dynamic arrays.
  • PWR — Returns a number raised to a power.
  • PWRS — Returns the elements of a dynamic array raised to a power.
  • QUOTE — Encloses a value in double quotation marks.
  • RAISE — Raises dynamic array delimiters to next level.
  • RECORDLOCKED — Returns the lock status for a record or file.
  • REM — Remainder after integer division of two values.
  • REMOVE — Extracts sequential elements of a dynamic array.
  • REPLACE — Replaces the data in an element of a dynamic array.
  • REUSE — Reuses a value when comparing two dynamic arrays of different lengths.
  • RIGHT — Returns a specified number of characters from the right end of a string.
  • RND — Returns a random number.
  • ROUND — Rounds a number.
  • SADD — Adds two numeric strings.
  • SCMP — Performs a string comparison of two numbers.
  • SDIV — Divides two numeric strings.
  • SELECTINFO — Returns information about a select list.
  • SENTENCE — Returns the command line that invoked the current process.
  • SEQ — Returns the character code corresponding to a specified character.
  • SEQS — Returns the character code for the first character of each element in a dynamic array.
  • SIN — Returns the sine of an angle.
  • SINH — Returns the hyperbolic sine of an angle.
  • SMUL — Multiplies two numeric strings.
  • SORT — Sorts the elements of a dynamic array.
  • SOUNDEX — Returns the Soundex code for an alphabetic string.
  • SPACE — Returns a string consisting of the specified number of spaces.
  • SPACES — Returns a dynamic array consisting of the specified number of spaces for each element.
  • SPLICE — Combines two dynamic arrays into a new dynamic array.
  • SPOOLER — Returns information on queued print jobs.
  • SQRT — Returns the square root of a number.
  • SQUOTE — Encloses a value in single quotation marks.
  • SSUB — Subtracts two numeric strings.
  • STATUS — Returns the status of the most recent operation.
  • STR — Repeats a string value.
  • STRS — Repeats the string value of each element of a dynamic array.
  • SUBR — Returns a value from an external subroutine.
  • SUBS — Subtracts the values of corresponding elements in two dynamic arrays.
  • SUBSTRINGS — Returns a substring for each element of a dynamic array.
  • SUM — Adds the values of the elements of a dynamic array.
  • SUMMATION — Adds the values of the elements of a multi-level dynamic array.
  • SYSTEM — Returns various system parameter values.
  • TAN — Returns the tangent of an angle.
  • TANH — Returns the hyperbolic tangent of an angle.
  • TIME — Returns the current local system time in internal format.
  • TIMEDATE — Returns the current local date and time.
  • TRANS — Reads field data from a MultiValue file.
  • TRIM — Removes leading and trailing characters from a string.
  • TRIMB — Removes trailing blanks from a string.
  • TRIMBS — Removes trailing blanks from each element of a dynamic array.
  • TRIMF — Removes leading blanks from a string.
  • TRIMFS — Removes leading blanks from each element of a dynamic array.
  • TRIMS — Removes leading and trailing spaces from each element of a dynamic array.
  • UNASSIGNED — Determines if a variable is unassigned.
  • UNICHAR — Returns the character corresponding to the specified character code.
  • UNICHARS — Returns the character corresponding to the specified character code for each element of a dynamic array.
  • UNISEQ — Returns the character code corresponding to a specified character.
  • UNISEQS — Returns the character code for the first character of each element in a dynamic array.
  • UPCASE — Converts alphabetic characters to uppercase.
  • XLATE — Reads field data from a MultiValue file.
  • XTD — Converts a number from hexadecimal to decimal.
  • Reference D: 
     
  • Whitespace and Comments — Whitespace and comment indicators.
  • Compiler Directives — Preprocessor statements issued to the MVBasic compiler.
  • MV Data Types — Data types supported for MultiValue compatibility.
  • Dynamic Arrays — A user-defined structure for storing multiple data values.
  • Labels — A program line identifier.
  • Line Continuation — Allows a program statement to occupy multiple lines.
  • MATCH Pattern Matching — A pattern match operator.
  • MultiValue Files — A data storage structure.
  • Caché Objects — Accessing class methods from MVBasic.
  • Operators — Arithmetic, logical, and string operators.
  • Strings — A delimited data literal.
  • System Variables — System-defined @ variables used for storing data values.
  • User Variables — User-defined variables used for storing data values.
  • VOC Format — The format for VOC entries.