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Deprecated. A collation function that converts alphabetic characters to the UPPER collation format.


%UPPER expression


Argument Description
expression A string expression, which can be the name of a column, a string literal, or the result of another function, where the underlying data type can be represented as any character type (such as CHAR or VARCHAR2).


This is a deprecated collation function. Please refer to %SQLUPPER for new development. %SQLUPPER provides superior collation of numerics, NULL values and empty strings.

%UPPER converts all alphabetic characters to uppercase (i.e., the UPPER format). It leaves unchanged numbers, punctuation, and leading and trailing blank spaces.

%UPPER does not force a numeric to be interpreted as a string. Caché SQL removes leading and trailing zeros from numerics. A numeric specified as a string retains leading and trailing zeros.

%UPPER is a Caché SQL extension and is intended for SQL lookup queries.

You can perform the same collation conversion in ObjectScript using the Collation()Opens in a new tab method of the %SYSTEM.UtilOpens in a new tab class:

  WRITE $SYSTEM.Util.Collation("The quick, BROWN fox.",5)

This function can also be invoked from ObjectScript using the UPPER()Opens in a new tab method call:

  WRITE $SYSTEM.SQL.UPPER("The quick, BROWN fox.")


The following example returns all names, selecting those where the uppercase form of the name starts with “JO”:

FROM Sample.Person

The following example returns all names in uppercase, selecting those where the name starts with “JO”:

FROM Sample.Person

The following Embedded SQL example converts the lowercase Greek letter Delta to uppercase. This example uses the %UPPER syntax that uses a space, rather than parentheses, to separate keyword from argument:

  IF $SYSTEM.Version.IsUnicode() {
    &sql(SELECT %UPPER {fn CHAR(948)},{fn CHAR(948)}
    INTO :a,:b
    FROM Sample.Person)
    IF SQLCODE'=0 {WRITE !,"Error code ",SQLCODE }
    ELSE {WRITE !,a,!,b }
  ELSE {WRITE "This example requires a Unicode installation of Caché"}

See Also

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